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Rajgarh enjoys a unique position among the hill forts of Maharashtra.  It possesses all the salient features of fort architecture which are peculiar to the Deccan region.  Situated on one of the spurs of the Sahyadri Mountains known as Murum hill, Region is about 35kms south-west of Pune.  The fort is at a height of approx.  1300 metres from sea-level and comprises three terraces (machis) and a citadel (Balekilla).  There are four gates called Gunjavane, Pali, Alu and Kaleshwari or Dindi gate.  The first two gates lead to the Padmavati machi, the third to the Sanjivani and the last to the Suvela machi.  Rajgarh looks like a winged bird flying in the sky – the Padmavati and the Sanjivani machis forming its two wings and the Balekilla and the Suvela machi its main body.
 
All the four of the fort have remains of buildings which included residential quarters, sadar or state offices, bazaar or business quarter, granary, armoury, temples, etc.  the fort had ample supply of water through tanks, cisterns and wells.  The water-supply being better on the Padmavati machi, it was major centre of activity on the fort.
 
Rajgarh, formerly known as Murumdeo, was earlier held by the Nizamshahi and Adilshahi rulers.  By 1648 AD, it was under the firm control of Shivaji, who gave it the new name Rajgarh, the king’s fort.   Shivaji’s construction activities here continued till 1670 AD.  For nearly twenty five years Rajgarh was the pre-coronation capital of Shivaji.  Out of Shivaji’s short life of fifty years (18,306 days) his stay of 2827 days at Rajgarh was the longest.  The fort witnessed a number of major political events of the Maratha period.
 
It was from Rajgarh that Shivaji went to meet Afzal Khan in 1659 AD.  His departure to Agra return from there, both these historic events took place at Rajgarh.  Rajgarh, Shivaji’s second son, was born here.  By ‘Treaty of Purandar’ in 1655 AD, shivaji ceded 23 forts to the Mughals, but not Rajgarh.  During the Peshwa period Rajgarh did not play any significant part mainly due to the shifting of political activities from the hill forts to the cities.  Rajgarh remained with the Sachiv family of Bhor till 1947 AD.
     
   
 
Pictures: The Pali gate of Rajgarh fort (above), and the Sanjivani machi girded by double walls and bastions (below).
amOJS> (Rajgad) {H$ëë`mMr C§Mr :  1394 _rQ>a.
{H$ëë`mMm àH$ma : {JarXwJ© S>m|Jaam§J: nwUo
{Oëhm : nwUo loUr : _Ü`_
{H$„o amOJS>, qhXdr ñdamÁ`mMr amOYmZr
JS>m§Mm amOm, am{O`m§Mm JS>
amOJS> ho {edmOr _hmamOm§Mo n{hbo à_wI amOH$s` H|$Ð. ~wb§X, ~obmJ Am{U ~iH$Q> amOJS> AmOhr Amnë`mbm qhXwñdamÁ`mMr ½dmhr XoV C^m Amho. nwÊ`mÀ`m Z¡F$Ë`obm 48 {H$._r. A§Vamda AZ² ^moaÀ`m ~m`ì`obm 24 {H$._r. A§Vamda Zram-doid§S>r-H$mZ§Xr Am{U Jw§OdUr ZÚm§À`m Imo-`m§À`m ~oMŠ`mV _wé§~XodmMm S>m|Ja C^m Amho. _mdi^mJm_Ü`o amÁ`{dñVma gmÜ` H$aÊ`mgmR>r amOJS> Am{U VmoaUm ho XmoÝhr {H$„o _moŠ`mÀ`m {R>H$mUr hmoVo. VmoaUm Oar A^oÚ Agbm Var ~mbo{H$„m AmH$mamZo bhmZ Agë`m_wio amOH$s` H|$Ð åhUyZ hm {H$„m gmo`rMm ZìhVm. Ë`m_mZmZo amOJS> XwJ©_ AgyZ Ë`mMm ~mbo{H$„m VmoaUm {H$ëë`mnojm _moR>m Amho. {edm` amOJS>mH$S>o H$moUË`mhr ~mOyZo `oVmZm EImXr Q>oH$S>r qH$dm ZXr Amobm§S>mdrM bmJVo EdT>r gwa{jVVm hmoVr,åhUyZ Amnbo amOH$s` H|$Ð åhUyZ {edmOr _hmamOm§Zr amOJS>mMr {ZdS> Ho$br.amOJS>mbm VrZ _mÀ`m d ~mbo{H$„m Amho. ~mbo{H$„m gdm©V C§M AgyZ Ë`mMr g_wÐgnmQ>rnmgyZMr C§Mr 1394 _rQ>a Amho.
{edVrW© am`JS> lr {edN>ÌnVtÀ`m H$V¥©ËdmMm {dñVma XmIdVmo Va XwJ©amO amOJS> Ë`m§À`m _hËdmH$m§joMr C§Mr XmIdVmo.
 
B{Vhmg :
amOJS>m g§~YrMo C„oI
1)"amOJS> Am{U VmoaUm ho XmoÝhr {H$„o A^oÚ ñdê$nmMo AgyZ Aem {R>H$mUr dgbo AmhoV H$s _mdi`m§Mm ZoVm {edmOr `mbm amÁ`{dñVmamgmR>r {H$ëë`m§Mm ^anya Cn`moJ Pmbm."
-Ooåg S>½bg(~wH$ Am°\$ ~m°å~o)
2) gmH$s _wñV¡XImZ Ë`mÀ`m _m{gao Am{b_{Jao ZmdmÀ`m J«§WmV åhUVmo- "amOJS> hm A{Ve` C§M. Ë`mMr C§Mr nmhVm gd© {H$ëë`mV Vmo loð> hmo` Ago åhUVm `oB©b. Ë`mMm Koa 12 H$mogm§Mm Amho. Ë`mÀ`m _O~yVrMr Va H$ënZmhr H$adV ZìhVr. S>m|JamÀ`m X-`mImo-`mVyZ Am{U KZKmoa AaÊ`mVyZ dm-`m{edm` Xwgao H$mhr {\$aHy$ eH$V Zmhr. `oWo nmdgmbmM \$º$ dmQ> {_iy eH$Vo. BVa H$moUrhr Ë`mVyZ OmD$ eH$V Zmhr."
3) _ho_X hm{e_ ImbrImZ `mZo "_wÝVI~wbbw~m~-E-_ho_Xm°emhr " Zm_H$ J«§Wm_Ü`o åhUVmo,"amOJS> {H$ëë`mMo _r H$go dU©Z H$é?H$m` Ë`m {H$ëë`mMr C§Mr, H$m` Ë`m§Mm {dñVma !OUy H$mhr AmH$meM ngabo hmoVo Ë`mMo Q>moH$ nmhÿZ N>mVr XS>no. Ë`mÀ`m ^mamZo n¥Ïdr YmaU H$aUmam nmVmimVrb d¥f^ AmoaS>V Agmdm. Ë`m ^mJmV gmnm§Mm gwigwimQ> hmoVm. {OH$S>o {VH$S>o {Za{Zamù`m àH$maMo qhg new {XgV. Ë`m_wio gJio ÌñV hmoD$Z Jobo. amOJS> {H$„m åhUOo S>m|JamMr am§J Ë`mMm Koa ~mam H$mogm§Mm Ë`mbm gJirH$Sy>Z doT>m KmbUo H${R>U hmoVo."




B{Vhmg :-
B{VhmgmVyZ Añnï> `oUm-`m C„oIm§déZ gmVdmhZnyd© åhUOo gmYmaU 2000 dfm© nydu nmgyZMm hm S>m|Ja Amho. ~«åhfu F$ftMo `oWo AgUmao dmñVì` d `mM ~«åhfu F$ftÀ`m ZmdmdéZ `oWo ñWmnZ Pmbobo lr ~«åhfu XodñWmZ `mdéZ S>m|Ja \$ma nwamVZ Agmdm.
amOJS>mMo nyduMo Zmd hmoVo _wa§~Xod hm {H$„m ~h_Zr amOdQ>r _Ü`o `mM ZmdmZo AmoiIbm OmV Ago AWm©V Ë`mdoir JS>mMo ñdê$n \$ma H$mhr ^ì` {Xì` Ago ZìhVo. Bgdr gZ 1490 À`m gw_mamg Ah_XZJaÀ`m {ZOm_emhrMm g§ñWmnH$ Ah_X ~{har `mZo dmboKmQ> Am{U ViH$moH$UmVrb AZoH$ {H$„o qOHy$Z npíM_ _hmamï´>mV à^md {Z_m©U Ho$bm Am{U `mM doir Ë`mZo _wê§$~Xod hm {H$„m hñVJV Ho$bm. _wé_XodmMo JS>H$ar {~ZmeV© eaU Amë`m_wio Ah_X ~{harbm {H$„m qOH$Ê`mg {deof à`mg H$amdo bmJbo Zmhr. nwT>o {H$ëë`mda {ZOm_emhrMr gÎmm àñWm{nV Pmë`mda 125 df} {H$ëë`mda H$moUmMmhr h„m Pmbm Zmhr. Bgdr gZ 1625 À`m gw_mamg _wê$_Xod {H$„m {ZOm_emhr H$Sy>Z Am{Xbehr H$S>o Ambm. {ZOm_ehmÀ`m dVrZo ~mOr h¡~Vamd {ebr_H$a d Ë`mMo dS>rb éÐmOr ZmB©H$ `m {H$ëë`mMr ì`dñWm nmhV hmoVo. _{bH$ A§~aÀ`m AmXoemZwgma ~mOr h¡~amdmZo _wé_XodmMm Vm~m Am{Xbemhr gaXma h¡~VIm_mH$S>o {Xbm.
1630 À`m gw_mamg hm {H$„m Am{XbehmH$Sy>Z naV {ZOm_emhrV XmIb Pmbm. ehmOramOm§Mm A{YH$mar gmoZmOr `m {H$ëë`mMm H$ma^ma nmhÿ bmJbm. {dOmnya Am{Xbemhr g¡Ý`mÀ`m EH$m VwH$S>rZo {H$ëë`mda h„m Ho$bm. Ë`mV gmoZmOr OI_r Pmbm. åhUyZ ~mbmOr ZmB©H$ {eir_H$a Amnë`m VwH$S>rgh _wé_XodmÀ`m ajUmW© YmdyZ Jobm. Voìhm ~mbmOr ZmB©H$ OI_r Pmbm. `m H$m_{Jar ~Ôb ehmOramOm§Zr ~mimOr ZmB©H$ {ebr_H$am§Mm Z§Va gÝ_mZhr Ho$bm.
{edam`m§Zr _wé_XodmMm {H$„m H$Yr KoVbm `mMm {bIrV nwamdm AmO _mÌ CnbãY Zmhr Ë`m_wio {H$„m Vmã`mV H$Yr Ambm ho gm§JUo A{ZpíMVM Amho.
{edM[aÌ gm{hË` I§S>mÀ`m Xhmì`m I§S>mV à{gÕ Pmbbo EH$ d¥Îm gm§JVo H$s, "{edmOrZo ehm_¥J ZmdmMm nd©V Vmã`mV KoD$Z Ë`mda B_maV ~m§Ybr."
g^mgX ~Ia åhUVmo H$s,
"_wam~mX åhUmoZ S>m|Ja hmoVm Ë`mg dg{dbo Ë`mMo Zmd amOJS> åhUmoZ R>o{dbo. Ë`m JS>mÀ`m Mma _mÀ`m dg{dë`m g^mgXmZo ~mbo{H$ëë`mbm gwÕm EH$ _mMr åhUyZ JUbr Amho."
_mÌ gZ 1646 Vo 1647 À`m gw_mamg {edam`m§Zr VmoaUm {H$ëë`mgmo~V hm {H$„m qOHy$Z KoVbm. hm {H$„m ~m§YÊ`mMo H$m_ _hmamOm§Zr _moR>çm PnmQ>çmZo gwé Ho$bo. Ë`m S>m|Jamg VrZ gm|S>m qH$dm _mÀ`m hmoË`m Ë`mghr VQ>~§Xr Ho$br. _w»` {H$ëë`mg amOJS> Zmd R>odyZ EH$ B_maV C^r Ho$br. VrZ _mÀ`m§Zm gwdoim, g§OrdZr Am{U nÙmdVr hr Zmdo {Xbr. {eadi ZOrH$ IoS>~mao ZmdmMm Jmd hmoVm VoWo amZ \$ma hmoVo Ë`m {R>H$mUr \$_m©er Am§ã`mMr PmS>o bmdyZ noR> dg{dbr d {VMo Zmd {edmnya Ago R>odbo.BgdrgZ 1660 _Ü`o Am¡a§JOo~mÀ`m AmkoZwgma em{hñVoImZmZo {edmOr _hmamOm§À`m àXoemda ñdmar Ho$br. \$magr gmYZm§_YyZ Aer _m{hVr {_iVo H$s em{hñVoImZmZo amOJS>mH$S>o \$m¡O nmR>{dbobr hmoVr øm \$m¡OoZo amOJS>mÀ`m OdinmgMr H$mhr IoS>r OmiyZ CÜdñV Ho$br na§Vw àË`j amOJS> {H$„m {OH§$Ê`mMm à`ËZ _mÌ Ho$bm Zmhr 6 E{àb 1663 amoOr emhrñVoImZmda N>mnm KmbyZ {edmOr _hmamO amOJS>mda naVbo.
gZ 1665 _Ü`o {_Pm©amOm O`qgJ `mZo {edam`m§À`m àXoemda ñdmar Ho$br. XmD$XImZ Am{U am`qgJ `m XmoZ gaXmam§Zm Ë`mZo `m n[agamVrb {H$„o qOH$Ê`mgmR>r nmR>{dbo. 30 E{àb 1665 amoOr _wJb g¡Ý`mZo amOJS>mda Mmb Ho$br. na§Vw _amR>çm§Zr {H$ëë`mdéZ {dbjU _mam Ho$ë`m _wio _wJbm§Zm _mKma ¿`mdr bmJbr.
{edmOr _hmamOm§Zr O`qgJ ~amo~a Vh H$aVmZm 23 {H$„o XoÊ`mMo _mÝ` Ho$bo d ñdV:H$S>o 12 {H$„o R>odbo. `m 12 {H$ëë`m§_Ü`o amOJS>, VmoaUm, qbJmUm, am`JS> `m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. g^mgX ~IarVrb C„oI Imbrb à_mUo Amho-
"gÎmmdrg {H$„o Vm§~«mg {Xbo. {ZemUo MT>{dbr daH$S> amOJS> d H$moQ> _moamon§V noedo d {Zbmon§V _wOw_Xma d ZoVmOr nmbH$a gaZmo~V Ago _mVwltÀ`m hdmbr Ho$bo d AmnUhr {X„rg Omdo, ~mXemhmMr ^oQ> ¿`mdr Agm H$ama Ho$bm."
{edmOr _hmamO Am½è`mhÿZ {ZgQy>Z {ZdS>H$ bmoH$m§{Zer 12 gßQ>|~a 1666 bm amOJS>mbm gwIén nmoMbo. 24 \o$~«wdmar 1670 amoOr amOJS>mda amOmam_Mm OÝ_ Pmbm. qghJS> {H$„m KoÊ`mgmR>r {edmOr _hmamOm§Zr VmZmOr _mbwgwao `mg amOJS>mdéZM 1670 _Ü`o nmR>{dbo. gZ 1671-1672 _Ü`o {edmOr _hmamOm§Zr am`JS> ñWmZ amOYmZr gmR>r {ZpíMV Ho$bo Am{U amOYmZr am`JS>mdéZ amOJS>mH$S>o hb{dbr.
3 E{àb 1680 amoOr {edam`m§Mo {ZYZ Pmë`mda ñdamÁ`mda Am¡a§JOo~mÀ`m ñdmarMo g§H$Q> H$mogibo. 11 _mM© 1689 amoOr g§^mOr _hmamOm§Zm nH$Sy>Z R>ma _mabo `mZ§Va _wJbmZr _amR>çm§Mo AZoH$ JS> qOHy$Z KoÊ`mMm à`ËZ Ho$bm. {H$emoaqgh hmS>m `m _wJb gaXmamZo OyZ 1689 _Ü`o amOJS> qOHy$Z KoVbm. Am¡a§JOo~mZo A~wbI¡aImZ `mbm amOJS>mMm A{YH$mar åhUyZ Zo_bo. _mÌ AÚmn g§^mOr _hmamOm§Zm nH$S>ë`mMr dmVm© ngabr ZìhVr Ë`m_wio _amR>çm§Mr \$m¡O amOJS>m^modVr Jmoim Pmbr Am{U Amnë`m ~imda amOJS> nwÝhm qOHy$Z KoVbm.
OmZodmar 1694 _Yrb EH$m nÌmV e§H$amOr Zmam`U g{Md `mZo 'H$mZX Imo-`mVrb Xoe_wIm§Zr amOJS>mÀ`m n[agamVrb àXoemMo _wJbm§À`m hëë`mnmgyZ g§ajU Ho$ë`m ~Ôb Ë`m§Mr BZm_o Ë`m§MH$S>o MmbdmdrV ' Agm AmXoe {Xbm hmoVm.
nwT>o 11Zmoh|~a 1703 _Ü`o ñdV: Am¡a§JOo~ OmVr{Zer hm {H$„m qOH$Ê`mgmR>r nwÊ`mhÿZ {ZKmbm. Am¡a§JOo~mMm hm àdmg _mÌ gwIH$a Pmbm Zmhr. amOJS>mÀ`m AbrH$S>o Mma H$mog KmQ>mVbm añVm Amho. añVm Ho$di XwJ©_ hmoVm Am¡a§JOo~mZo EH$ _{hZm AmYr H$mhr hOma Jd§S>r, ~obXma Am{U H$m_Xma `m§Zm añVm ZrQ> H$aÊ`mÀ`m H$m_mda nmR>{dbo. nU añVm H$mhr ZrQ> Pmbm ZìhVm Ë`m_wio ~aoMeo gm_mZ Amho {VWo Q>mHy$Z Úmdo bmJbo. 2 {S>g|~a 1703 amoOr Am¡a§JOo~ amOJS>m Odi nmohMbm. {H$ëë`mg _moM} bmdbo. {H$ëë`mMm ~wéO Vrg JO C§M Ë`mM C§MrMo X_X_o V`ma H$éZ Ë`mda Vmo\$m MT>{dë`m d ~wéOmda Vmo\$m§Mm ^S>r_ma H$é bmJbo. Va{~`VImZ Am{U h_r~wÔrZImZ `mZo nÙmdVrÀ`m ~mOyZo _moM} bmdbo. nwT>o XmoZ _{hZo Pmbo Var {H$„m H$mhr hmVmV `oV ZìhVm. eodQ>r 4 \o$~«wdmar 1703 amoOr amOJS> Am¡a§JOo~mÀ`m hmVmV nS>bm. BamXVImZ `mbm Am¡a§JOo~mZo {H$„oXma Zo_bo Am{U {H$ëë`mMo Zmd "Zm{~ehmJS>"Ago R>odbo.
29 _o 1707 amoOr JwUmOr gmd§V `mZo n§VmOr {edXodm ~amo~a amOJS>mda ñdmar H$éZ Vmo {H$„m qOHy$Z KoVbm Am{U nwÝhm {H$„m _amR>`m§À`m ñdmYrZ Pmbm. nwT>o emhþÀ`m Vmã`mV {H$„m Amë`mda 1709 _Ü`o emhþZo gwdoim _mMrg 300 én`o d g§OrdZr _mMrg 100 én`o Aer ì`dñWm bmdyZ {Xbr.
noedoH$mimV amOJS> hm g{Mdm§À`m Vmã`mV hmoVm. noedmB© _Ü`o Am{W©H$ n[apñWVr dm§adma {~KS>V Agë`mZo {H$ëë`mda {e~§XrMo nJmahr doioda hmoV ZgV. AemM n[apñWVr _Ü`o amOJS>mdarb godH$m§Mo nJma EH$ df©^a WH$bo hmoVo - amOdmS>o I§S> 12. `mZ§Va amOJS> ^moa g§ñWmZmÀ`m Vmã`mV Jobm. Ë`mMr ì`dñWm nmhÊ`mgmR>r ghm A{YH$mar Zo_bo. gwdoim _mMrgmR>r gaZmo~V {ebr_H$a, nÙmdVr _mMrgmR>r gaZmo~V-ndma KamÊ`mVrb, g§OrdZr _mMrgmR>r gaZmo~V- ImonS>o KamÊ`mVrb `m {edm` ZmB©H$ d gaZmB©H$ ho A{YH$mar gwÕm AgV.

JS>mdarb nhmÊ`mgmaIr {R>H$mUo :
nÙmdVr Vbmd :-
JwáXadmOm H$Sy>Z nÙmdVr _mMrda Amë`mda g_moaM gw~H$ ~m§YUrMm {dñVrU© Agm Vbmd AmT>iVmo. VbmdmÀ`m q^Vr AmOhr em~yV AmhoV. VbmdmV OmÊ`mgmR>r Ë`mÀ`m q^VrVM EH$ H$_mZ V`ma Ho$bobr Amho. VbmdmV gÜ`m Jmi _moR>çm à_mUmV gmMbm Amho.

am_oœamMo _§{Xa:-
nÙmdVr XodrÀ`m _§{Xam g_moaM nyd©{^_wI Ago am_oœa _§{Xa Amho. _§{XamVrb {edqbJ {edH$mbrZ Amho. _§{XamV AgUmar _mê${Vam`m§Mr _yVu X{jUm{^_wI Amho.



amOdmS>m:
am_oœa _§{XamnmgyZ nm`-`m§Zr da OmVm§Zm COdrH$S>o amOdmS>çmMo H$mhr Adeof {XgVmV.`m amOdmS>çm_Ü`o EH$ Vbmd Amho.`m {edm` amOdmS>çmnmgyZ WmoS>o nwT>o Joë`mda A§~maImZm bmJVmo.`mÀ`m WmoS>o nwT>o gXa Amho. gXaoÀ`m g_moa XméH$moR>ma Amho.
gXa:-
hr JS>mdaMr gdm©V _hËdmMr Aer dmñVy. am_oœa _§{XamnmgyZ nm`-`m§Zr da Joë`mda COì`m hmVmg amOdmS>çmMo Adeof AmhoV. WmoS>o nwT>o Joë`mda COdrH$S>o gXa Amho. nydu `m gXaoV AmoQ>rÀ`m H$S>og _Yë`m IUmV EH$ OwZm Jm{bMm d Ë`mda bmoS> R>odbobm Ago.AZoH$ B{Vhmg VÁkm§Mo Ago _V Amho H$s hr gXa ZgyZ VQ>gaZm¡~VmMo Ka Amho.

nmbr XadmOm:-
nmbr XadmOmMm _mJ© nmbr JmdmVyZ `oVmo. hm _mJ© \$ma àeñV AgyZ MT>Ê`mgmR>r nm`-`m ImoXë`m AmhoV.
nmbr XadmOmMo n{hbo àdoe Ûma ^anya C§MrMo Am{U é§XrMo Amho, `mVyZ hÎmr gwÕm A§~margh AmV `oD$ eH$Vmo. ho àdoeÛma Amobm§Sy>Z 200 _r. nwT>o Joë`mda ^a^¸$_ ~m§YUrMo Xwgao àdoeÛma Amho. àdoeÛmamMo g§ajU Mm§Jë`m ~wb§X Aem ~wéOm§Zr Ho$bobo Amho. `m XadmOmMo d¡{eîQ>ç åhUOo XadmOmÀ`m da Am{U ~wéOmda naH$moQ> ~m§Ybobo AmhoV. `m naH$m|Q>mZm Jmob AmH$mamMo PamoHo$ R>odbobo AmT>iVmV. Aem PamoŠ`m§Zm '\${bH$m' Ago åhUVmV. `m \${bH$m§Mm Cn`moJ Vmo\$m S>mJÊ`mgmR>r hmoV Ago. XadmOmVyZ AmV {eaë`mda XmoÝhr ~mOyg nhmaoH$-`m§À`m XodS>çm AmhoV. `m XadmOmZo JS>mda Amë`mda AmnU nÙmdVr _mMrda nmohMVmo.

Jw§OdUo XadmOm:-
Jw§OdU XadmOm åhUOo EH$m_mJo EH$ Agboë`m VrZ àdoeÛmam§Mr EH$ _m{bH$ Amho. n{hbm XadmOm AË`§V gmÜ`m ~m§YUrMm Amho. _mÌ XadmOmbm XmoÝhr ~mOyg ^a^¸$_ ~wéO Amho. Jw§OdUo XadmOmÀ`m Xwg-`m àdoeÛmambm d¡{eï>nyU© H$_mZ Amho.`m XadmOmÀ`m eodQ>r d JUoe nÅ>rÀ`m Imbr XmoÝhrH$S>o XmoZ CnS>o KQ> KoVboë`m d EH$m H$_bH${bHo$ g_moa Agboë`m gm|S>m AmhoV. gm§àV `m {eënmdéZ lr qH$dm JO{eën V`ma Pmbo Agmdo Ago AZw_mZ {ZKVo. `m gd© Jmoï>tdéZ Ago AZw_mZ {ZKVo H$s,ho àdoeÛma {ednyd©H$mbmV ~m§Ybobo Agmdo. `m àdoeÛmamVyZ AmV Amë`mda XmoÝhr ~mOyg
nÙmdVr _mMr:-
amOJS>mbm EHy$U 3 _mÀ`m AmhoV. `m n¢H$s gdm©V àeñV Aer _mMr åhUOo nÙmdVr _mMr. nÙmdVr _mMr Ho$di EH$ bîH$ar H|$Ð ZgyZ {ZdmgmMo {R>H$mUhr hmoVo. _mMrda ~m§YH$m_mMo AZoH$ Adeof gmnS>VmV. nÙmdVr XodrMo _§{Xa,gB©~mBªMr g_mYr ,hdmbXmam§Mm dmS>m, aËZembm, gXa, nÙmdVr Vbmd, Jwá XadmOm, nmbr XadmOm, Jw§OdUo XadmOm, XméJmoù`mMr H$moR>mao `m dmñVy AmOhr {e„H$ AmhoV.`m{edm` nÙmdVr _mMrda ~«måhUdJm©Mr Am{U Aï>àYmZ _§S>imMr H$mhr Kao AmhoV.

nÙmdVr _§{Xa :-
gÜ`m 2002 _Ü`o `m _§{XamMm OrUm}ÜXma Ho$bm Amho. {edam`m§Zr {H$„o _wé§~XodmMo amOJS> åhUyZ Zm_H$aU Ho$ë`mda `oWo Agboë`m OmJoda nÙmdVr XodrMo _§{Xa ~m§Ybo `mMm C„oI AmT>iVmo. gÜ`m _§{XamV Amnë`mbm VrZ _yË`m© {XgVmV. _w»` nwOoMo _yVu ^moaÀ`m n§V g{Mdm§Zr ñWmnÞ Ho$br Amho. Ë`mÀ`m COì`m ~mOwbm bhmZ Agbobr _yVu {edam`m§Zr ñWm{nV Ho$bobr Amho Va XmoZ _yVuÀ`m _Ü`o e|Xya
nhmaoH$-`m§À`m XodS>çm AmhoV.\$mgbobm Vm§Xim åhUOo nÙmdVr XodrMr _Vu Amho. `m _§{XamV gÜ`m 20 Vo 30 OUm§Zm amhVm `oVo. _§{XamÀ`m ~mOygM nmÊ`mMo Q>mHo$ Amho. `mVrb nmUr {nÊ`mgmR>r `mo½` Amho. _§{XamÀ`m g_moaM gB©~m§B©Mr g_mYr Amho.

.


g§OrdZr _mMr:-
gwdoim _mMrÀ`m ~m§YUrZ§Va {edmOr_hmamOm§Zr `m _mMrMo ~m§YH$m_ H$aÊ`mg gwadmV Ho$br. _mMrMr EHy$U bm§~r AS>rM {H$._r. Amho. hr _mMr gwÕm 3 Q>ßß`m§_Ü`o ~m§Ybobr Amho. g§OrdZr _mMrdarb Kam§Mo Adeof AmOhr ApñVËdmV AmhoV. _mMrÀ`m àË`oH$ Q>ßß`mg {MbIVr ~wéO AmhoV. n{hbm Q>ßnm Imbr CVéZ CÎmaoH$S>o diyZ VQ>mbmJV WmoS>o _mJo MmbV Joë`mda VrZ {Vhoar ~m§YUrMo ~wé§O bmJVmV. `m {VÝhr ~wéOmda {edH$mbmV àM§S> _moR>çm Vmo\$m Agmì`mV `m _mMrda AZoH$ nmÊ`mMr Q>mH$s AmhoV. `m _mMrbm EHy$U 19 ~wéO AmhoV. _mMrbm ^w`mar naH$moQ>mMr `moOZm Ho$bobr Amho. `m ^w`mamVyZ ~mhoarb VQ>~§Xr H$S>o `oÊ`mgmR>r qXS>çm§Mr ì`dñWm Ho$bobr Amho. g§OrdZr _mMrda Amiw XadmOmZo gwÕm `oVo. Amiw XadmOm nmgyZ amOJS>mMr d¡{eï>` Agbobr {MbIVr VQ>~§Xr XwV\$m© Mmby hmoVo. XmoÝhr VQ>m§_Yrb A§Va AYm©-nmD$U _rQ>a AgyZ Imobr gw_mao 6 Vo 7 _rQ>a Amho. `m ^mJmV ~wéOm§À`m {MbIVmV CVaÊ`mgmR>r nm`-`m§À`m qXS>çm AmhoV. VgoM ZmioVyZ da `oÊ`mgmR>r XJS>r gmonmZ AmhoV. _mMrda VQ>~§Xr _Ü`o H$mhr OmJr àmV{d©YrMr {R>H$mUo AmT>iVmV. Xwhoar VQ>~§XrÀ`m eodQ>r ~bmT>ç ~wéO AmhoM `m§Mm Cn`moJ Xyada ZOa R>odÊ`mgmR>r hmoV Ago.

Amiw XadmOm:-
g§OrdZr _mMrda `oÊ`mgmR>r `m XadmOmMm Cn`moJ hmoV Ago. VmoaUm déZ amOJS>mda `oÊ`mMm EH$_od _mJ© `m XadmOmVyZ OmV Ago. Amiw XadmOm gÚpñWVrbm ~-`mn¡H$s T>mgmiboë`m AdñWVoV Amho. `m XadmOmda EH$ {eën Amho. dmKmZo EH$ gm§~ma CVmUo nmS>bo Amho Ago {MÌ `m {eënmV XmIdbo Amho.

gwdoim _mMr:-
_wé§~XodmMm {H$„m Vmã`mV Amë`mZ§Va {edmOr _hmamOm§Zr {H$ëë`mÀ`m nyd}H$S>rb S>m|Jaam§Jobm ^a^¸$_ VQ>~§Xr ~m§Ybr, Am{U _mMrbm gwdoim _mMr Ago Zmd R>odbo. nyd}H$S>o hr _mMr Agë`m_wio `m _mMrMo Zmd gwdoim Ago R>odbo. gwdoim _mMr hr g§OrdZr EdT>r bm§~ Zmhr _mÌ `m _mMrMo gwÕm 3 Q>ßno AmhoV. nyd}H$S>o hr _mMr qMMmoir hmoV Jobobr Amho.
_mMrÀ`m àma§^r Q>oH$S>r gmaIm ^mJ Amho `mbm Sw>~m Ago åhUVmV. `m Sw>ã`mÀ`m S>mdrH$Sy>Z amZmVyZ OmUm-`m dmQ>oZo Joë`mda {e~§Xr KaQ>o {XgVmV. VoWo S>mì`m hmVmg EH$ X{jU_wIr dra _méVr d Ë`mÀ`m Odi nmÊ`mMo Q>mH$ Amho. `oWo AgUmao Mm¡Wao `ogmOr Ho$H$, VmZmOr _mbgwao d {ebt~H$a `m gaXmam§Mr hmoVr. `oWyZ gai OmUmar dmQ> gwdoim _mMrÀ`m Xwg-`m Q>ßn`mda OmVo Va S>mdrH$S>o OmUmar dmQ> H$mioœar ~wéOmÀ`m n[agamV KoD$Z OmVo. AmnU _mMrÀ`m {XeoZo WmoS>o nwT>o Joë`mda COdrH$S>o EH$ gXa bmJVo. `oWyZ nwT>o VQ>~§XrÀ`m Iam ^mJ gwé hmoVmo. `oWrb VQ>~§Xr XmoZ Q>ßß`m§V {d^mJbr AgyZ àË`oH$ Q>ßß`mÀ`m eodQ>r {MbIVr ~wéO Amho. Xwg-`m Q>ßß`mV Joë`mda VQ>~§XrÀ`m XmoÝhr ~mOyg AmVrb A§Jmg ^w`mar {MbIVr naH$moQ>mMr aMZm Ho$br Amho. Xwg-`m Q>ßn`mH$S>o OmVm§Zm EH$ C§M IS>H$ bmJVmo Am{U `m IS>H$mV 3 _rQ>a ì`mgmMo EH$ {N>Ð AmT>iVo `m IS>H$mbmM ZoQ> qH$dm 'hÎmràñVa' Ago åhUVmV. `m hÎmràñVamÀ`m AbrH$S>o VQ>mVrb JUnVr AmT>iVmo d VoWyZM nwT>o VQ>mVyZ Imbr OmÊ`mgmR>r Jwá XadmOm Amho. `m XadmOmbm _T>o XadmOm Ago åhUVmV.hÎmr àñVamÀ`m nwT>rb ^mJmV gwÕm EH$ AgmM Jwá XadmOm

Amho. gwdoim _mMrÀ`m VQ>~§Xrbm EHw$U 17 ~wéO AmhoV Ë`mn¡H$s 7 ~wéOm§Zm {MbIVr ~wéOm§Mr gmo` Amho.
gwdoim_mMrÀ`m gdm©V eodQ>À`m Q>ßß`mV ImbÀ`m ^mJmV dmKOmB©Mo {eën Amho.


H$mioœar ~wéO Am{U n[aga:-
gwdoim _mMrÀ`m Xwg-`m Q>ßß`mH$S>o OmUm-`m dmQ>oÀ`m COdrH$S>o dië`mda Amnë`mbm nmÊ`mMr H$mhr Q>mH$s {XgVmV. nwT>o am_oœa _§{XamMo H$mhr Adeof AmhoV.`m am_oœa _§{XamV {edqbJ, ^¾ Z§Xr, EH$ `j_yVu Aer {eëno AmT>iVmV.
`m am_oœa _§{XamÀ`m darb ~mOyg {ebmI§S>mda JUoemMr à{V_m, nmd©Vr, {edqbJ Aer {eëno AmhoV. `oWyZ WmoS>ogo nwT>o Joë`mda H$mioœar ~wéO Amho. `oWoM VQ>mV EH$ Jwá XadmOm XoIrb AmT>iVmo.



~mbo{H$„m:-
amOJS>mÀ`m gdm©V C§M ^mJ åhUOo ~mbo{H$„m hmo`. `m ~mbo{H$ëë`mH$S>o OmUmam añVm H$R>rU Am{U Aé§X Amho. MT>U g§në`mZ§Va ~mbo{H$ëë`mMm XadmOm bmJVmo. `mbmM _hmXadmOm Ago hr åhUVmV. AmOhr XadmOm Mm§Jë`m pñWVrV Amho. àdoeÛmamMr C§Mr 6 _rQ>a AgyZ àdoeÛmamda H$_i, ñdpñVH$ hr ew^{MÝh H$moabobr AmhoV. ~mbo{H$ëë`mbm gmYmaU 1.5 _rQ>a C§MrMr VQ>~§Xr ~m§Ybobr AgyZ {d{eï> A§Vamda ~wéOhr R>odbobo AmhoV.
XadmOmVyZ AmV Joë`mda g_moaM OZZr_§{Xa Amho. `oWyZ nwT>o Joë`mda M§ÐVio bmJVo. Vù`mÀ`m g_moaM CÎma~wéM Amho. `oWyZ nÙmdVr _mMr Am{U BVa gd© n[aga {XgVmo. ~wéOmÀ`m ImbyZ EH$ nm`dmQ> ~mbo{H$ëë`mda `oVo AmVm _mÌ hr dmQ> EH$ _moR>m {ebmI§S> Q>mHy$Z ~§X Ho$bobr Amho.hr dmQ> Á`m ~wéOmdê$Z da `oVo Ë`m ~wéOmbm CÎma ~wéO Ago åhUVmV.`oWyZ g§nyU© amOJS>mMm Koam Amnë`m bjmV `oVmo.`m CÎma ~wéOmÀ`m ~mOwbm ~«åhfu F$ftMo _§{Xa Amho.`m {edm` ~mbo{H$ëë`mda H$mhr ^¾ AdñWoVrb B_maVr Mm¡Wao, dmS>çm§Mo Adeof AmT>iVmV.

amOJS> {H$„m g§nyU© nmhÊ`mgmR>r gmYmaU 2 {Xdg bmJVmV. JS>mdéZ VmoaUm, àVmnJS>, am`JS>, {bJm§Um, qghJS>, nwa§Xa, dO«JS>, _ëhmaJS>, amohrS>m, am`aoœa Am{U bmohJS>, {dgmnya ho {H$„o {XgVmV.
JS>mda OmÊ`mÀ`m dmQ>m :
JS>mda OmÊ`mgmR>r AZoH$ _mJ© AmhoV.
1. JwáXadmÁ`mZo amOJS>
nwUoè amOJS> Aer Eg.Q>r nH$Sy>Z Amnë`mbm dmOoKa `m Jmdr CVaVm `oVo.~m~wXm Pmnm nmgyZ EH$ VmgmÀ`m A§Vamda aoqbJ AmhoV.`m§À`m gmømZo AË`§V H$_r doimV amOJS>mda OmVm `oVo.`mdmQ>oZo JS>mda OmÊ`mg 3 Vmg bmJVmV.
2. nmbr XadmÁ`mZo amOJS>:-
nwUo-doëho Eg.Q>r.Zo doëho _mJ} nm~o `m Jmdr CVéZ H$mZX ZXr nma H$éZ nmbr XadmOm JmR>mdm.hr dmQ> nm`-`mMr AgyZ gdm©V gmonr Amho.`mdmQ>oZo JS>mda OmÊ`mg 3 Vmg bmJVmV.
3. Jw§OdUo XadmÁ`mZo amOJL>...
nwUo doëho `m h_añË`mdarb _mJm©gZr `m Jmdr CVamdo Am{U {VWyZ gmIa_mJ} Jw§OdUo `m JmdmV OmVm `oVo.hr dmQ> AdKS> Amho.`m dmQ>odê$Z JS> JmR>Ê`mg AS>rM Vmg bmJVmV._m{hVJmam {edm` `m dmQ>oMm Cn`moJ H$ê$ Z`o.
4. Aiw XadmÁ`mZo amOJS>:-
^wVm|S>o _mJ} Amiw XadmÁ`mZo amOJS> JmR>Vm `oVmo.{edWa KirVyZ hr Aiy XadmÁ`mZo amOJS> JmR>Vm `oVmo.
5. JwáXadmOm_mJ} gwdoim_mMr :-
Jw§OdUo JmdmVyZ EH$ dmQ> O§JbmVyZ JwáXadmOo_mJ} gwdoim _mMrda `oVo.

amhÊ`mMr gmo` :
1.JS>mdarb nÙmdVr _§{XamV 20 Vo 25 OUm§Mr ahmÊ`mMr gmo` hmoVo.
2.nÙmdVr _mMrda ahmÊ`mgmR>r n`©Q>H$ {ZdmgmÀ`m Imoë`m AmhoV.
OodUmMr gmo` :
AmnU ñdV: H$amdr.
nmÊ`mMr gmo` :
nÙmdVr _§{XamÀ`m g_moaM ~mam_hr {nÊ`mÀ`m nmÊ`mMo Q>mHo$ Amho.
OmÊ`mgmR>r bmJUmam doi :
3 Vmg.